Conceptualizing ecosystem services using social–ecological networks


Social–ecological networks (SENs) provide a promising approach to represent the complex ecological, social, and social–ecological relationships that influence ecosystems service supply.

Ecosystem services can be represented in SENs as nodes, links, attributes, or as emergent properties of the network, each bringing distinct aspects of ecosystem services into focus to address different questions.

Applications of SENs in ecosystem service research can foster: (i) understanding of the social and ecological drivers of ecosystem services; (ii) forecasting of the impacts of stressors; (iii) investigation of trade-offs between ecosystem services; and (iv) assessment of the effects of alternative management options.

Ecosystem service research would benefit from a typology to conceptualize particular ecosystem services in SEN analyses and from greater clarity of when ecosystem service research can benefit from a SEN approach.


Link to centre authors: Bodin, Örjan, Guerrero, Angela
Publication info: Felipe-Lucia, M.R., Guerrero, A. M., Alexander, S.M., 2021. Conceptualizing ecosystem services using social–ecological networks. Trends in Ecology & Evolution,


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